The aging process is dependent on intrinsic/hereditary factors and, together with environmental factors and individual lifestyle, leads to a slowdown in important metabolic processes in the skin: the cause of the visible signs of skin aging, such as wrinkles and folds, sagging skin, decreasing elasticity and loss of shine . One of the main reasons for the visible signs of skin aging is a reduction in the volume-producing cells.
In addition to biologically caused, internal aging, a number of internal and external factors contribute to the processes that cause wrinkles and skin sagging.
A major internal factor for sagging skin is hormonal changes. During puberty, the estrogen level increases and the face is plump. As we get older, hormone levels decrease and the number and size of the skin cells that provide volume decrease.
Volume loss is part of general skin aging and is caused by the same lifestyle-related external factors that contribute to wrinkles, loss of elasticity and lack of shine. These primarily include: smoking and the sun - both of which lead to collagen breakdown or collagen damage. In old age, the synthesis rate of collagen is significantly lower than the degradation rate. In addition, excessive sugar consumption and the associated glycation of proteins, fibers and nucleic acids (advanced glycation end products) cause wrinkles to form, since the end products - as the name suggests - cannot be metabolized and therefore significantly impair the connective tissue.
The factors mentioned generate oxidative stress, which leads to the formation of free radicals. These attack the cell structures that are responsible for the smooth and firm appearance of the skin. Once the structure is weakened and collagen and elastin are broken down, this accelerates overall skin aging. The visible signs such as wrinkles and wrinkles, loss of volume, loss of elasticity and lack of shine become more visible.
Possible effects on your biomarkers
In the upper layers of the skin (epidermis), the production of hyaluronic acid and lipids decreases. In addition to the increase in fine lines and wrinkles, this causes thinner-looking skin and changes in skin texture, e.g. B. Dryness and roughness. Thinning also occurs due to the slower proliferation rate of basal keratinocytes, which can no longer produce enough new cells to maintain skin thickness. In addition, the density of cells and connective tissue is becoming ever lower.
An annual reduction in the collagen content in the deeper layers of the skin, together with a falling elastin content, increases the thinning of the skin. Since elastin is partially responsible for the elasticity and strength of the skin, a decrease in these two substances results in sagging and less elastic skin. The size and number of volumizing cells decrease and cause these layers to shrink. The results are hollower cheeks and a more worn facial expression. Over time, the supply of nutrients and blood flow to the skin decrease. The skin is less able to bind moisture and heals more slowly.